Fermat's Last theorem (*Fermat's conjecture*) is a renowned discrete mathematics problem introduced by amateur French mathematician of the 17^{th} century *Pierre de Fermat*. Pierre de Fermat is author of many more theorems, out of which many were proved and many disproved, but it took more than 3 centuries to prove Fermat's Last theorem.

Fermat's Last theorem was published in 1670 reedition of *Diophantus' Arithmetica*. This edition, published by Fermat's son, was based on *Bachet's* latin translation of *Arithmetica* (1621) and comments and observations written in the page margins by Pierre de Fermat.

## Formulation

Pierre de Fermat formulated the conjecture as follows:

It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a fourth power into two fourth powers, or in general, any power higher than the second, into two like powers. I have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this margin is too narrow to contain.

Written mathematically:

## Proof after three centuries

Mathematicians tried to (dis)prove this theorem for more than three centuries. Among unsuccessful solvers famous names like *Euler*, *Lamé*, *Cauchy* can be found. The conjecture was proved in 1994 by English mathematician *Andrew Wiles*, using the means of modern mathematics of the 20^{th} century. The proof itself has more than 100 pages and it is doubtful that some simple proof, which could Fermat had, exists.